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Tontons macoutes

LC control no.no2014127710
Descriptive conventionsrda
Corporate name headingTontons macoutes
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Tonton Macoute
Milice de volontaires de la sécurité nationale
Beginning date1959
Ending date1986
Associated countryHaiti
Field of activityNational security
Found inDuvalierist Government collection, 1958-1989: (Tontons macoutes)
Gérard de Villiers. Requiem pour tontons macoutes, 2003
Force Armée d'Haïti documents, 1964-1987: (Tonton Macoute files)
Papa Doc et les Tontons macoutes, la vérité sur Haïti, 1971
OCLC, Sept. 12, 2014 (hdg.: Tonton-macoutes)
haitiancolors WWW site, Sept. 12, 2014 (The Duvaliers relied on a secret armed militia called Tonton macoutes (its official name was Volontaires de la Sécurité Nationale (National Security Volunteers), which imposed a rule of terror on the Haitian population)
Wikipedia, Sept. 26, 2014 (A Tonton Macoute was a member of the Haitian paramilitary force created in 1959 by dictator François "Papa Doc" Duvalier; in 1970, the militia was officially renamed Milice de Volontaires de la Sécurité Nationale (Militia of National Security Volunteers or MVSN), perhaps named after the homonymous Italian Fascist paramilitary organization; Haitians named this force after the Haitian Creole mythological Tonton Macoute (Uncle Gunnysack) bogeyman, who kidnaps and punishes unruly children by snaring them in a gunnysack (macoute) and carrying them off to be consumed at breakfast; the group was formally disbanded in 1986, but its members continued to terrorize the populace)
Associated languagefre