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African Americans--Legal status, laws, etc

LC control no.sh 85001962
Topical headingAfrican Americans--Legal status, laws, etc.
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Variant(s)Jim Crow laws
Subject example tracingExample under reference from Discrimination against African Americans, [Mexican Americans, etc.]
Found inVirginia Commonwealth University Libraries, Social Welfare History Project website, accessed August 2, 2019: Jim Crow Laws and Racial Segregation ("Jim Crow Laws were statutes and ordinances established between 1874 and 1975 to separate the white and black races in the American South.")
   <https://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/eras/civil-war-reconstruction/jim-crow-laws-andracial-segregation/>
U.S. Department of Labor website, accessed August 2, 2019: (The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the nation's benchmark civil rights legislation, and it continues to resonate in America. Passage of the Act ended the application of "Jim Crow" laws, which had been upheld by the Supreme Court in the 1896 case Plessy v. Ferguson, in which the Court held that racial segregation purported to be "separate but equal" was constitutional.)
   <https://www.dol.gov/agencies/oasam/civil-rights-center/statutes/civil-rights-act-of-1964>
History channel website, accessed July 30, 2019: end of Jim Crow laws (In 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act, which legally ended discrimination and segregation that had been institutionalized by Jim Crow laws. And in 1965, the Voting Rights Act ended efforts to keep minorities from voting. The Fair Housing Act of 1968, which ended discrimination in renting and selling homes, followed.")
   <https://www.history.com/topics/early-20th-century-us/jim-crow-laws>
Encyclopedia Britannica website, "Jim Crow laws", accessed July 30, 2019: (Jim Crow law, in U.S. history, any of the laws that enforced racial segregation in the South between the end of Reconstruction in 1877 and the beginning of the civil rights movement")
   <https://www.britannica.com/event/Jim-Crow-law>
Long Road to Justice September 2007 Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education Fund www.reclaimcivilrights.org The Civil Rights Division at 50, accessed August 2, 2019: p. 7 ("Jim Crow laws passed by states after the Civil War took the vote from African Americans and imposed de jure segregation that stripped them of most of their citizenship rights.")
The new encyclopedia of Southern culture : volume 4, 2013: page 238 ("These Jim Crow segregation laws were, according to historian C. Vann Woodward, "the public symbols and constant reminders" of the American American's inferior position in the South.") p. 237 ("'Jim Crow law' first appeared in the Dictionary of American English in 1904, but laws requiring racial segregation had appeared briefly in the South during Reconstruction.") p. 238 ("Jim Crow Segregation laws)
University of Southern California, Law School website, accessed 28, 2018: ("Jim Crow" has long been a derogatory slang term for a black man, making it a fitting name for the laws that were in force in the South and some border states from 1877 through the mid-1960s. These laws were in place to maintain racial segregation after the Civil War ended. Initially, Jim Crow laws required the separation of white people and people of color on all forms of public transportation and in schools. Eventually, the segregation expanded to include interaction and comingling in schools, cemeteries, parks, theaters, and restaurants.)
   <https://onlinellm.usc.edu/a-brief-history-of-jim-crow-laws/>